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Sunday, February 2, 2020 | History

2 edition of Outlines of moral philosophy found in the catalog.

Outlines of moral philosophy

Dugald Stewart

Outlines of moral philosophy

for the use of students in the University of Edinburgh.

by Dugald Stewart

  • 324 Want to read
  • 24 Currently reading

Published by Printed for William Creech; and sold by T. Cadell Jun. & W. Davies London in Edinburgh .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Ethics

  • Edition Notes

    ContributionsAgnew, Andrew, Sir, 1793-1849 (bookplate)
    The Physical Object
    Pagination9, [x]-xvi, 323, [1] p.
    Number of Pages323
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL21335704M

    Hume makes it clear in his presentation that reason alone cannot tell anyone what it is that he ought to do. Among its most outstanding features are Aristotle's insistence that there are no known absolute moral standards and that any ethical theory must be based in part on an understanding of psychology and firmly grounded in the realities of human nature and daily life. Likewise, it can be said there is general disapproval of injustice and of those actions which serve selfish interests at the expense of the welfare of others. Apart from one's feelings, there can be no sense of obligation or what Immanuel Kant referred to as "oughtness. Why should anyone renounce their way of life for the sake of a highly disputable theory about what might be rational in a hypothetical situation that might not be even be imaginable? Moral virtue is a relative mean between extremes of excess and deficiency, and in general the moral life is one of moderation in all things except virtue.

    And, if it has been approved, that which approves it, in turn, either has been approved or has not been approved, and so on ad infinitum. Among its most outstanding features are Aristotle's insistence that there are no known absolute moral standards and that any ethical theory must be based in part on an understanding of psychology and firmly grounded in the realities of human nature and daily life. The utility of one's actions as a means for bringing about the happiness and general welfare of the entire community in which one lives is for Hume the essential criterion of goodness. Man has personal moral responsibility for his actions. Of course, with some actions, such as murder or adultery, there is no virtuous mean, since these actions are always wrong. Instead, we can only observe that right conduct consists of some sort of mean between the extremes of deficiency and excess.

    Everyone governs their conduct by directing it to desired or valued ends. Instead, Sextus advocates simply giving up belief; in other words, suspending judgment epoche about whether or not anything is knowable. But if many different and at times conflicting considerations are relevant in moral questions — as Greene came to accept — how can any single value be pre-eminent? On the other hand, if he were to "strongly" assert that Dion was "really" in the room, then he may be met with opposing arguments of equal psychological force against the self-same proposition and experience mental disquietude as a result.


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Outlines of moral philosophy book

If morality were merely a matter of individual feelings in which no common element could be recognized, there would be no principles involved. Thrasymachus assumes here that justice is the unnatural restraint on our natural desire to have more.

In his analysis of the human understanding, Hume had applied the empirical method in order to find an explanation for the way in which ideas are formed. As a musician learns to play an instrument, we learn virtue by practicing, not by thinking about it.

Of the three, monarchy is preferable to aristocracy or timocracy. Why should we be just? Nicomachean Ethics — most popular ethics treatise by Aristotle. And, if it has been approved, that which approves it, in turn, either has been approved or has not been approved, and so on ad infinitum.

Overview Summary Overview All human activities aim at some end that we consider good. He insisted that all normal human beings possess a feeling for humanity.

Instead, Sextus advocates simply giving up belief; in other words, suspending judgment epoche about whether or not anything is knowable. It was for reasons of this kind that Hume was especially anxious to make careful inquiry concerning the origin and nature of moral principles. The ones which are disapproved tend to prevent the realization of these ends.

Nine more books follow, and Socrates develops a rich and complex theory of justice. Whether this classification is correct will depend on the meaning which is given to that term. Book I, Chap. Only voluntary actions are praiseworthy or blameworthy.

The first two kinds of friendship are based on superficial qualities, so these sorts of friendship are not generally long lasting.

Virtue is a disposition, not a feeling or a faculty. That it is perfectly natural for one to approve of actions favorable to his own interests and to disapprove of those which are contrary to it was too obvious to be denied. The actions which are approved are the ones which promote the happiness and satisfy the essential needs of people.

Infused with a breathless enthusiasm for the latest theories in evolutionary psychology, they use these speculations to present souped-up versions of long discredited philosophies.

Yet he offers no definition of his own, and the discussion ends in aporia—a deadlock, where no further progress is possible and the interlocutors feel less sure of their beliefs than they had at the start of the conversation.

The procedure for determining facts is not the same as it is for recognizing distinctions of value.

List of important publications in philosophy

Now that genetic engineering might one day become a feasible proposition, the question may no longer be purely theoretical. Utilitarianism Deontological ethics — approach that judges the morality of an action based on the action's adherence to a rule or rules.

Feelings are not the subject of praise or blame, as virtues and vices are, and while feelings move us to act in a certain way, virtues dispose us to act in a certain way. But he will not believe that such claims are true on the basis of reasons since, as far as the skeptic is aware, no reason for assenting to such claims has yet been shown to be "any more" credible than the reasons for their denial.

Incontinence is a peculiar form of badness. Thus, the Pyrrhonist achieves ataraxia not by casting certain judgments about appearances but rather through his refined ability to "oppose appearances to judgments" such that he is "brought firstly to a state of mental suspense and next to ataraxia.Henry Sidgwick (/ ˈ s ɪ dʒ w ɪ k /; 31 May – 28 August ) was an English utilitarian philosopher and economist.

He was the Knightbridge Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Cambridge from until his death, and is best known in philosophy for Alma mater: Trinity College, Cambridge. Only ethical egoism promotes the value of the individual, altruism does not (Ayn Rand) a) Altruism leads to a denial of value of the individual (by giving primary concern to sacrificing one's life) b) Crit: altruism is not the only alternative to egoism (e.g.

utilitarianism) 3. This important new book develops a new concept of autonomy. The notion of autonomy has emerged as central to contemporary moral and political philosophy, particularly in the area of applied ethics.

Professor Dworkin examines the nature and value of autonomy and used the concept to analyze various practical moral issues such as proxy consent in the medical context, paternalism, and entrapment. Preface. THIS "Brief Text-Book of Moral Philosophy" is a companion volume to the author's "Brief Text-Book of Logic and Mental Philosophy," lately published and already extensively used in Academies and other educational institutions.

This page features a growing list of Free Philosophy eBooks, presenting essential works by Aristotle, Hegel, Kant, Nietzsche, Wittgenstein and many other philosophers. Smith, Adam - The Theory of Moral Sentiments Ludwig - The Blue Book Read Online Now.

1 SYLLABI AND COURSES OF READING. The following Syllabi and Courses of Reading for M.A. Philosophy (External Students) were approved by the Board of Studies in Philosophy in its meeting held on 18 February M.A. Part I Examination. APPENDIX Outline of Tests for M.A.